Lyme Disease can cause serious health issues in dogs if not diagnosed and treated early. But there are simple steps you can take to protect your pet from developing this illness. Find out more here.
Also known as Borreliosis, this disease is carried and transmitted by ticks (most often the tiny Deer Tick), and is most often found in the north-eastern United States.
It can have long-lasting and serious consequence if symptoms aren't recognized and treated quickly. Luckily there is a simple way to protect your pet from being infected, and there is also a vaccine available for dogs who are at high risk of contracting the infection.
Although primarily transmitted by the teeny-weeny Deer Tick (also known as the black-legged tick and whose primary host are deer) it's not picky, and if your dog happens to wander through long grass or wooded areas, then this little critter will happily 'jump aboard'!
This is NOT good news for your pup. However, the fact that you are aware of this possibility is the key to keeping your dog healthy.
Lyme Disease isn't 'contagious' and you can't catch it from your dog, however if an infected Deer Tick bites you then you can be infected in the same way as your dog.
Humans tend to suffer from flu-like symptoms, including achy joints and swollen lymph nodes, and a characteristic 'bullseye' rash around the area of the original tick bite.
Although this disease can occur in almost any part of the US, it's more prevalent in certain areas particularly the north-eastern states such as New York State, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Virginia.
It's also often found in the Great Lakes area, in states such as Minnesota, Wisconsin and North Dakota, and sometimes in California.
In order for the ticks on dogs to transmit the bacteria (Borrelia burgdorferi), they need to be attached to the dog for at least 48 hours. After this period of time the bacteria could be transferred to the dogs' bloodstream through the ticks saliva.
However, not all dogs who are bitten by infected ticks will get sick, and not all deer ticks are carrying Lyme Disease. Studies have shown that a large percentage of dogs already have some immunity, but there's no way for you to tell by looking whether or not your dog is at risk.
It's best to follow preventative measures, and also treat any tick found on your dog as a potential threat (there are also other tick-borne diseases such as Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Ehrlichiosis and others to be concerned about).
Deer ticks are actually quite small, usually between 2 to 3.5 mm, and a fully grown adult is no bigger than a sesame seed. When it is sucking blood however, it grows considerably in size and is easier to see.
The images on the left show and adult deer tick before and after it has been gorging on a host animal's blood.
The first photo is obviously the 'before' pic, and the second one is the 'after' shot.
Nasty isn't it!
The symptoms of canine lyme disease usually appear somewhere between 2 and 5 months after the dog has been bitten by an infected tick. So at first the dog won't have any symptoms at all.
But occasionally they can appear sooner (in as little as a few weeks) or sometimes even later, possibly up to a year or longer after exposure.
It's also important to realize that the symptoms of lyme disease in dogs are NOT the same as the symptoms you might see in a person who has Lyme disease. You are very unlikely to see that classic 'bullseye rash'! for example.
The most common symptoms of this disease are :
The most important symptoms to be aware of are limping or lameness, swollen joints and/or lymph nodes, and fever. Lethargy and loss of appetite are more general signs of illness, and could more easily be symptoms of many other illnesses or diseases.
It's also important to know that the 'bulls-eye' rash that is often seen as a symptom of Lyme Disease in humans, is much less commonly seen in dogs.
If the tick bite was on a relatively hair-free area of your dog (ie his belly, inner hind leg etc.), then you may see a red, bullseye type rash around the bite itself. However, most dogs don't develop this symptom, and even if they do the chances are fairly good that it will be hidden by his fur.
If left untreated, Lyme Disease in dogs can cause some very serious health issues. These include :
So, it's clear how important it is to take your dog to the vet if you have the slightest suspicion that your dog could be at risk.
Treatments for this disease are usually very effective, if the illness is recognized early enough.
If your pup or dog is showing any of the signs/symptoms above, get him veterinary attention immediately as they can progress very quickly, and your dog could go from having a slight limp, to being almost immobile within a couple of days.
Anytime your dog is in a wooded area, or in long grass, he is exposed to ticks. If you live in the countryside, he could even pick them up in his own yard. It's vital to check your dog daily and if you find a tick (or several ticks), remove them right away.
There's about a 48 hour 'window', before an infected tick can transmit the bacteria that causes Lyme Disease, so being vigilant about checking for, and removing, ticks is the best way to prevent him from getting sick.
The more common American Dog Tick isn't a carrier, but most of us can't really tell the difference between tick species..... and I know that I'm not too keen to get up really close to these nasty little creatures if I can help it!
Your veterinarian can make a definitive diagnosis with a simple blood test, and if your dog tests positive and is showing symptoms, he'll be treated with antibiotics which are usually very effective.
The most commonly used antibiotics used for treating Canine Lyme Disease are doxycycline and amoxicillin. The earlier the antibiotics are started, the better the chance that your dog will make a full recovery.
A 3 week course of these antibiotics is the minimum most veterinarians recommend, and it may be necessary for your dog to take them for a month, or occasionally even longer. If the antibiotics are stopped too early, symptoms may come back (along with the risk of the long-term damage listed above).
If you see a tick on your dog... remove it!
It's the safest thing to do.
Luckily, given the potential severity of the effects of canine Lyme Disease, preventing this illness is fairly simple.
Using an effective tick preventative on a regular basis will protect your dog fairly effectively, by ensuring that any ticks on him will die within the 48 hour 'window' before infection sets in.
Over the counter products can't be relied on, and it's important to choose a product that contains Permethrin or Amitraz. The most popular brands of topical treatments such as Frontline Plus for Dogs and K 9 Advantix good choices.
Revolution is not an effective treatment against Lyme Disease in dogs as it only kills the American Dog Tick, NOT the Deer Ticks who carry the disease. Advantage is also ineffective as protection because it only kills fleas!
Some collars such as the Preventic Tick Collar For Dogscan also be used, but as these may not be as effective as the topical treatments it's a good idea to use them as extra protection if ticks are really bad in your area, or if your dog spends a lot of time out hunting/walking in long grass or wooded areas. A Preventic collar can be used at the same time as the topical treatments, but is effective for up to 3 months.If you live in an area where Lyme Disease is prevalent, you may want to consider having your pup vaccinated against it.
Although not 100% effective (no vaccine is!), it's still the best way to protect a high-risk dog.